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International Conference on Fungal & Infectious Diseases , will be organized around the theme “Update on current trends and developments in controlling fungal diseases”
Fungal Infections 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Fungal Infections 2017
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About fifty fungal species cause human disease, usually by one of three major mechanisms. First, some fungi cause an immune response, resulting in hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions to the fungi. (The fungi themselves thus act as antigens .) For example, several Aspergillus species can cause asthma and other allergic reactions. The second mechanism is found in fungal species producing poisons or mycotoxins. Aspsergillus flavus grows on improperly stored grain and can produce aflatotoxins that cause tumors in birds and various other animals.
The third disease mechanism is infection. Mycoses (singular, mycosis) are fungal infections found in or on the body. Most mycoses are "nuisance" diseases, although some can be quite serious or even life-threatening. Many of the mycoses are caused by opportunistic organisms, organisms taking advantage of the patient whose defense mechanisms are down (such as persons suffering from AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] ). Examples of opportunistic mycoses include histoplasmosis (usually respiratory), Cryptococcus’s (affecting any organ, often the brain), coccidioidomycosis (often respiratory), and candidiasis (the common yeast infection affecting any part of the body). (Candidiasis in the mouth and throat of newborns is called thrush.)
Superficial mycoses affecting the skin, scalp, hair, or nails are spread by contact with infected persons or contaminated objects. These common mycoses are generally self-limiting. Tinea is a categorical term used to describe fungal infections by their location, such as tinea capitis (head, also known as ringworm), tinea barbae (beard), tinea corporis (body), tinea cruris (genital and anal areas, also known as jock itch), tinea pedis (foot, also known as athlete's foot).
- Track 1-1Role of TLRs
- Track 1-2Aspsergillus flavus
- Track 1-3Mycoses
- Track 2-1Bartonella Henselae
- Track 2-2 Alphavirus
- Track 2-3Balantidium coli
Fungi (singular is fungus) are primitive organisms that live in and on air, water, soil, and other surfaces. Some types of fungus reproduce by sending tiny spores through the air. People who have a weakened immune system and those who are taking certain medicines (e.g., antibiotics, corticosteroids) are at increased risk for fungal skin infections.There are many different types of fungal infections. Common types include the following:
- Track 3-1Ring warm (tinea corporis)
- Track 3-2Tinea capitis
- Track 3-3Athletes foot (tinea pedis)
- Track 3-4Onychomycosis
- Track 3-5Tinea versicolor
- Track 3-6Cutaneous candidiasis
- Track 3-7Shigellosis
- Track 3-8Fungal meningitis
- Track 3-9Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Track 3-10Viral Infectious Diseases
- Track 3-11Ebola and Zika Viral Infections
- Track 3-12Respiratory Diseases
- Track 3-13Sepsis/ Septicaemia
Pathogenicity was defined as the capacity of a microbe to cause damage in a host . Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as "medical mycology." Although fungi are eukaryotic organisms, many pathogenic fungi are also microorganisms,
while virulence is viewed to be a relative term and defined as the relative capacity of a microbe to cause damage in a host. Specific pathogens possess a wide array of virulence factors. Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin), whereas others are obtained from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some exotoxins). Virulence factors encoded on mobile genetic elements spread through horizontal gene transfer, and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens
In this formulation, a pathogenic microbe causes disease only when the damage incurred in the host is sufficient to affect homeostasis. Importantly, host damage can occur as a result of direct microbial action on tissues, as a result of immune response to the microbe or both.
- Track 4-1Pathogenic fungi
- Track 4-2Medical mycology
- Track 4-3Virulence factors
- Track 4-4Homeostasis.
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.
From mycology arose the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of "plant" pathogens are fungi.
Many fungi produce toxins, antibiotics, and other secondary metabolites. For example, the cosmopolitan (worldwide) genus Fusarium and their toxins associated with fatal outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans were extensively studied by Abraham Joffe.
Fungi are fundamental for life on earth in their roles as symbionts, e.g. in the form of mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, and lichens. Many fungi are able to break down complex organic biomolecules such as lignin, the more durable component of wood, and pollutants such as xenobiotics, petroleum, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. By decomposing these molecules, fungi play a critical role in the global carbon cycle.
- Track 5-1Phytopathology
- Track 5-2Taxonomy
- Track 5-3Mycorrhizae
Antifungal drugs are used to treat infections caused by fungus and to prevent the development of fungal infections in patients with weakened immune systems.
There are three classes of drugs typically used to treat fungal infections: polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins.
polyenes’ are drugs that work by attaching to the sterol component found in the fungal membrane, causing the cells to become porous and die. The two polyenes most commonly used are nystatin (Mycostatin) and amphotericin B (Fungizone). Nystatin is often used as a topical agent to treat superficial infections, or is taken orally to treat candidal infections such as oral or esophageal candidiasis.
Amphotericin B was the first antifungal drug to be approved for use, and it is still the standard therapy for the most severe systemic fungal infections. Recently, several new types of amphotericin B (Abelcet, Amphotec and AmBisome) have been introduced. These drugs, called lipid formulations, cause fewer side effects than traditional amphotericin B but are more expensive.
Azoles stop fungal growth by preventing fungi from making an essential part of their cell wall. Three typical azoles are ketoconazole (Nizoral), fluconazole (Diflucan), and itraconazole (Sporanox). Ketoconazole is the oldest of these three drugs, and has been used since the 1970s. It is slightly more toxic than the other azoles and does not work for aspergillosis and many candidiasis infections.
Although fluconazole is effective against both superficial and systemic candidiasis, some strains of this fungus have now become resistant to the drug. Itraconazole, the newest of the azoles, is effective against a range of different fungal infections. Unlike ketoconazole or fluconazole, it can be used to treat aspergillosis.
Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that work by disrupting the wall that surrounds fungal cells. Caspofungin (Cancidas) is the first of this new class of drugs to be approved. It is an effective treatment for severe, systemic fungal infections, and is given to patients who do not respond to other therapies.
- Track 6-1Mycostatin
- Track 6-2Esophageal candidiasis
- Track 6-3Caspofungin
- Track 7-1Immunotherapy of invasive fungal diseases
- Track 7-2Immunogenetics of allergic aspergillosis
- Track 7-3Genetics of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
- Track 7-4Biomarker of fungal infections
- Track 7-5Immunogenetics of dermatophytosis
- Track 7-6Immunology of erythema nodosum leprosum
Fungal outbreaks have been linked to a variety of sources, including exposure to disease-causing fungi in the natural environment or injections with contaminated medication. With systems in place for early identification for these types of events, CDC and partners can continue to track, test for, respond to, and better understand emerging fungal health threats.
- Track 8-1Histoplasmosis
- Track 8-2Fatal gastro intestinal mucormycosis
- Track 8-3Fungal endophthalmitis
- Track 8-4Outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections
- Track 8-5Malassezia
Fungal diseases are usually caused by common fungi found in our environment, including the soil, plants, trees, and even on our skin and other parts of the body. Symptoms of fungal infection depend on the type and location in the body. Fungal infections may be mild, manifesting as rashes or mild respiratory problems. However, some diseases caused by fungi may be severe and can cause serious complications and death.
- Track 9-1Common skin inflammation
- Track 9-2Trichophyton rubrum
- Track 9-3Malassezia
- Track 9-4Yeast infections
Most diagnoses of fungal infections of the skin can be made by physical examination, assisted by the use of a Wood's lamp, skin scrapings for microscopic examination, and fungal cultures. Dermatophyte infections are common at all ages, in both sexes, and they have a worldwide distribution. These infections include tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea manuum and tinea barbae. Tinea versicolor, caused by Malassezia furfur, and candidal infections are also common.
- Track 10-1Mucorales
- Track 10-2Cultures of clinical specimens
- Track 10-3Histopathology
- Track 10-4Anti fungal therapy
- Track 10-5Diagnosis of dermatophytosis
Antifungal drugs are used to treat fungal diseases. Depending on the nature of the infection, a topical or systemic agent may be used.
Example of antifungals include: fluconazole which is the basis of many over-the-counter antifungal treatments . Another example is amphotericin b which is more potent and used in the treatment of the most severe fungal infections that show resistance to other forms of treatment and it is administered intravenously.
Yeast infections in the vagina, caused by candida albicans, can be treated with medicated suppositories such as tioconazole and pessaries whereas skin yeast infections are treated with medicated ointments.
There are two main approaches to preventing fungal infection. One is to avoid contact with the organism. This can be achieved by not sharing hats, combs, brushes, or other objects, especially when fungus infections are present. Wearing flip-flops or shoes in locker rooms, public showers, and around swimming pools can help reduce contact with athlete's foot fungus.
- Track 11-1Ring-shaped lesion
- Track 11-2Allogeneic BMT
- Track 11-3Antifungal chemoprophylaxis
- Track 12-1Vaccines against human pathogenic fungi
- Track 12-2Toxicity
- Track 12-3Vaccines and passive immunotherapy
- Track 12-4Anti-coccidioides immitis vaccine
- Track 12-5Determination of specific immune responses
- Track 13-1Case report of fungal infections
- Track 13-2Allergic reactions
- Track 13-3Toxin production
- Track 13-4Opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods
- Track 13-5Unusual fungal infection of the lung
- Track 13-6Opportunistic fungal pathogens